Today Cyber Security plays a paramount role in global security. On this blog, the CEO of Paramount Defenses shares rare insights on issues related to Cyber Security, including the World's Top Cyber Security Risk, Advanced Persistent Threats (APT), Cyber Warfare, Corporate Espionage, Insider Threats and other topics.


Gold Finger The Paramount Brief Gold Finger Mini World Peace

October 13, 2017

A Massive Cyber Breach at a Company Whilst it was Considering the 'Cloud'

(A Must-Read for all CEOs, CFOs, CIOs, CISOs, Board Members & Shareholders Today)


Folks,

Today was supposed to be an exciting Friday morning at a Multi-Billion $ organization since the world's top Cloud Computing companies were going to make their final pitches to the company's C-Suite today, as it was considering moving to the "Cloud."

With Cloud Computing companies spending billions to market their latest Kool-Aid to organizations worldwide (even though much of this may actually not be ready for mission-critical stuff), how could this company too NOT be considering the Cloud?



The C-Suite Meeting

Today was a HUGE day for this multi-billion dollar company, for today after several months of researching and evaluating their choices and options, the company's leadership would finally be deciding as to which Cloud Computing provider to go with.


This meeting is being chaired by the Chairman of the Board and attended by the following organizational employees -

  1. Chief Executive Officer (CEO)

  2. Chief Financial Officer (CFO)
  1. Chief Information Officer (CIO)

  2. Chief Information Security Officer (CISO)

 Also in attendance are about a dozen Vice Presidents, representing Sales, Marketing, Research and Development etc.




Meeting In-Progress

After breakfast, the presentations began at 9:00 am. The organization's CIO kicked off the meeting, rattling off the numerous benefits that the company could enjoy by moving to the Cloud, and minutes later the Vice President of Cloud Computing from the first Cloud Computing company vying for their business started his presentation. His presentation lasted two hours.

The C-Suite then took a break for lunch.

The next presentation began at 1:00 pm and was expected to last till about 4:00 pm. The Vice President of Cloud Computing from the second Cloud Computing company had started her presentation and was almost an hour into it, when all of a sudden this happened...

... the CISO's assistant unexpectedly entered the room, went straight to the CISO and whispered something into his ear.

Everyone was surprised, and all eyes were on the CISO, who grimly asked his assistant - "Are you 100% sure?"  He said "Yes."





Houston, We Have a Problem

The CISO walked up to the CIO and whispered something into his ear. The CIO sat there in complete shock for a moment!


He then gathered himself and proceeded to request everyone except the C-Suite to immediately leave the conference room.

He told the Vice President of this Cloud Computing company - "Hopefully, we'll get back to you in a few weeks."

He then looked at the CEO and the Chairman of the Board, and he said - "Sir, we have a problem!"




Its Over

The CEO asked the CIO - "What's wrong? What happened?"

The CIO replied - "Sir, about 30 minutes ago, an intruder compromised the credentials of each one of our 20,000 employees!"


The CEO was almost in shock, and just couldn't believe what he had just heard, so he asked - "Everyone's credentials?!"

The CIO replied - "I'm afraid yes Sir, yours, mine, literally everyone's, including that of all our privileged users!"

The CEO could sense that there was more bad news, so he asked - "Is there something else I should know?"

The CIO replied - "Sir, 15 minutes ago, the intruder logged on as an Enterprise Admin, disabled the accounts of each one of our privileged users, and used Group Policy to deploy malicious software to each one of our 30,000 domain-joined computers! By now, he could have stolen, exfiltrated and destroyed the entirety of our digital assets! We may have lost literally everything!"

The CEO was shocked! They'd just been breached, and what a massive breach it was - "How could this have happened?"




Mimikatz DCSync 

The CIO turned to the CISO, who stepped in, and answered the question - "Sir, an intruder used a tool called Mimikatz DCSync to basically request and instantly obtain the credentials of every single user from our foundational Active Directory deployment."


The CEO asked - "What is Active Directory?"

The CISO replied - "Sir, simply put, it is the very foundation of our cyber security"

The CEO then asked - "Wait. Can just anyone request and extract credentials from Active Directory?"

The CISO replied - "Sir, not everyone can. Only those individuals whose have sufficient access to do so, and by that I mean, specifically only those who have Get-Replication-Changes-All effective-permissions on the domain root object, can do so."

The CEO then said - "This does not sound right to me. I'm no technical genius, but shouldn't we have known exactly who all have this, whatever you just said, er yes that Get-Replication-Changes-All effective permissions in our Active Directory?!"

The CISO replied - "Sir, it turns out that accurate determination of effective permissions in Active Directory is actually very difficult, and as a result it is almost impossible to figure out exactly who has this effective permissions on our domain root!"

The CEO figured it out - "So you're saying that the intruder had compromised the account of someone who was not on your radar and not supposed to have this access, but actually did, and the intruder used that access to steal everyone's credentials?"

The CISO replied - "That's right. It appears we did not know that this someone had sufficient access (i.e. effective permissions) to be able to replicate secrets from Active Directory, because it is very difficult to accurately figure this out in Active Directory."



The CEO was furious! - "You're kidding right?! Microsoft's spent billions on this new fad called the "Cloud", yet it doesn't even have a solution to help figure out something as vital as this in Active Directory? How long has Active Directory been around ?!

The CISO replied - "Seventeen years."

The CEO then said in disbelief - "Did you just 17 years, as in S-E-V-E-N-T-E-E-N years?!  Get Satya Nadella on the line now! Perhaps I should #REFRESH his memory that we're a customer, and that we may have just lost a few B-I-L-L-I-O-N dollars!"




This is for Real

Make NO mistake about it. As amusing as it might sound, the scenario shared above is very REAL, and in fact today, most business and government organizations worldwide that operate on Active Directory have no idea as to exactly who has sufficient effective permissions to be able to replicate secrets out of their Active Directory. None whatsoever!


We can demonstrate the enactment of this exact scenario, and its underlying cause, to any organizations that wishes to see it.




This Could've Been (and Can Be) Easily Prevented 

This situation could easily have been prevented, if this organization's IT personnel had only possessed the ability to adequately and accurately determine effective permissions in their foundational Active Directory deployments.


Sadly, since Microsoft apparently never educated its customers about the importance of Active Directory effective permissions, most of them have no clue, and in fact have no idea as to exactly who can do what across their Active Directory deployments!

Unfortunately, Mimikatz DCSync is just the Tip of the Iceberg. Today most organizations are likely operating in the dark and have no idea about the actual attack surface, and thus about exactly who can create, delete and manage the entirety of their domain user accounts, domain computer accounts, domain security groups, GPOs, service connection points (SCPs), OUs etc. even though every insider and intruder could try and figure this out and misuse this insight to compromise their security.

Technically speaking, with even just minimal education and the right tooling, here is how easy it is for organizations to figure this out and lock this down today, i.e. to lock this down before an intruder can exploit it to inflict colossal damage - RIGHT HERE.


Oh, and you don't need to call Microsoft for this, although you certainly can and should. If you do, they'll likely have no answer, yet they might use even this to pitch you their latest toy, Microsoft ATA, and of course, their Cloud offering, Microsoft Azure.

Wait, weren't these C*O discussing the Cloud (and likely Microsoft Azure) just a few hours (and a few billion dollars) ago?!




Fast-Forward Six Months

Unfortunately, given the massive scale of this breach, the company did not survive the attack, and had to declare bankruptcy. The C*Os of this company are still looking for suitable employment, and its shareholders ended up losing billions of dollars.


All of this could've been prevented, if they only knew about something as elemental as this, and had the ability to determine this.





Summary

The moral of the story is that while its fine to fall for the latest fad, i.e. consider moving to the "Cloud" and all, but as AND while you consider and plan to do so, you just cannot let you on-prem cyber defenses down even for a moment, because if you do so, you may not have a company left to move to the Cloud. A single excessive effective permission in Active Directory is all it takes.


I'll say this one more time and one last time - what I've shared above could easily happen at almost any organization today.

Best wishes,

CEO, Paramount Defenses



PS: If this sounds too simple and high-level i.e. hardly technical, that is by intent, as it is written for a non-technical audience. This isn't to showcase our technical depth; examples of our technical depth can be found here, here, here, here, here  etc.  etc.



PS2: Note for Microsoft - This may be the simplest example of "Active Directory Access Control Lists - Attack and Defense."

Here's why - Mimikatz DCSync, which embodies the technical brilliance of a certain Mr. Benjamin Delpy, may be the simplest example of how someone could attack Active Directory ACLs to instantly and completely compromise Active Directory. On the other hand, Gold Finger, which embodies the technical expertise of a certain former Microsoft employee, may be the simplest example of how one could defend Active Directory ACLs by being able to instantly identify/audit effective permissions/access in/across Active Directory, and thus lockdown any and all unauthorized access in Active Directory ACLs, making it impossible for an(y) unauthorized user to use Mimikatz DCSync against Active Directory.



PS3: They say to the wise, a hint is enough. I just painted the whole picture out for you. (You may also want to read this & this.)

PS4: If you liked this, you may also like - How To Easily Identify & Thwart Sneaky Persistence in Active Directory

September 27, 2017

Some Help & Good News for Microsoft regarding Active Directory Security


Folks,

You'll want to read this short blog post very carefully because it not only impacts Microsoft, it likely impacts you, as well as the foundational security of 85% of all business and government organizations worldwide, and it does so in a positive way.



A Quick and Short Background

From the White House to the Fortune 1000, Microsoft Active Directory is the very foundation of cyber security at over 85% of organizations worldwide. In fact, it is also the foundation of cyber security of almost every cyber security company worldwide.


Active Directory is the Foundation of Cyber Security Worldwide

The entirety of an organization's building blocks of cyber security, including the user accounts used by the entirety its workforce, as well as the user accounts of all its privileged users, the computer accounts of the entirety of its computers, and the security groups used to provision access to the entirety of its IT resources, are stored, managed and protected in Active Directory.

During the past few years, credential-theft attacks aimed at the compromise of an organization's privileged users (e.g. Domain Admins) have resulted in a substantial number of reported and unreported breaches at numerous organizations worldwide. In response, to help organizations combat the menace of these credential-theft attacks, Microsoft has had to make substantial enhancements to its Windows Operating Systems as well as acquire and introduce a technology called Microsoft ATA.

These enhancements have made it harder for perpetrators to find success with traditional credential-theft attacks, so they've started focusing their efforts on trying to find ways to attack the Active Directory itself, as evidenced by the fact that in the last year alone, we've seen the introduction of Mimikatz DCSync, BloodHound and recently the advent of Active Directory Botnets.

Make no mistake about it. There's no dearth of opportunity to find ways to exploit weaknesses in Active Directory deployments because there exists an ocean of access within Active Directory, and sadly due to an almost total lack of awareness, education, understanding and tooling, organizations have no idea as to exactly what lies within their Active Directory, particularly in regards to privileged access entitlements, and thus today there likely are 1000s of privilege escalation paths in most Active Directory deployments, waiting to be identified and exploited. All that perpetrators seem to lack today is the know-how and the tooling.

Unfortunately, since the cat's out of the bag, perpetrators seem to be learning fast, and building rapidly, so unless organizations act swiftly and decisively to adequately lock-down vast amount of access that currently exists in their foundational Active Directory deployments, sadly the next big wave of cyber breaches could involve compromise of Active Directory deployments.





Clearly, Microsoft Has No Answers

It gives me absolutely no pleasure to share with you that unfortunately, and sadly as always, Microsoft yet again seems to be playing catch-up, and in fact, it has no clue or any real answers, ideas or solutions to help organizations in this vital regard.


Here's Proof - Last week, on September 18, 2017, Microsoft's Advanced Threat Analytics (ATA) Team posted this -



If and when you read it, it will likely be unequivocally clear to you as to just how little Microsoft understands about not just the sheer depth and breadth of this monumental challenge, but about the sheer impact it could have on organizations worldwide!

You see, if you understand the subject of Active Directory Security well enough, then you know that Active Directory access control lists (ACLs) today don't just impact organizational security worldwide, they likely impact national and global security!

That said, in that post, the best Microsoft could do is concede that this could be a problem, wonder why organizations might ever need to change AdminSDHolder, falsely assume that it may not impact privileged users, praise a massively inaccurate tool for shedding light on this attack vector, and end by saying - "if you find a path with no obstacles, it probably leads somewhere."

Oh, and the very last thing they tell you that is their nascent ATA technology can detect AD multiple recon methods.


In contrast, here's what they should have said - "We care deeply about cyber security and we understand that left unaddressed, this could pose a serious cyber security risk to our customers. Be rest assured that Microsoft Active Directory is a highly robust and securable technology, and here's exactly how organizations can adequately and reliably identify and lock-down privileged access in their Active Directory deployments, leaving no room for perpetrators to identify and exploit any weaknesses."

The reason I say that should've been the response is because if you know enough about this problem, then you also know that it can actually be completely and sufficiently addressed, and that you don't need to rely on detection as a security measure.

BTW, to appreciate how little Microsoft seems to understand about this huge cyber security challenge, you'll want a yardstick to compare Microsoft's response with, so here it is (; you'll want to read the posts) - Active Directory Security School for Microsoft.



Er, I'm really sorry but you are Microsoft, a US$ 550 Billion corporation, not a kid in college. If the best you can do concerning such a profoundly important cyber security challenge is show how little you seem to know about and understand this problem, and only have detection to offer as a solution, frankly, that's not just disappointing, that's deeply concerning, to say the least.

Further, if this is how little you seem to understand about such a profoundly important cyber security challenge concerning your own technology, I cannot help but wonder how well your customers might actually be protected in your recent Cloud offering.





Fortunately There's Help and Good News For Microsoft

I may appear to be critical of Microsoft, and I do still believe that they ought to at least have educated their customers about this and this huge cyber security challenge, but I also love Microsoft, because I've been (at) Microsoft, so I'm going to help them.


To my former colleagues at Microsoft I say - "Each one of us at Microsoft are passionate, care deeply and always strive to do and be the best we can, and even though I may no longer be at Microsoft, (and I still can't believe how you missed this one), luckily and fortunately for you, we've got this covered, and we're going to help you out."

So, over the next few days, not only am I going to help reduce the almost total lack of awareness, education and understanding that exists at organizations today concerning Active Directory Security, I am also going to help organizations worldwide learn just how they can adequately and swiftly address this massive cyber security challenge before it becomes a huge problem.

Specifically, in days to come, as a part of our 30-Day Active Directory Security School, you can expect the following posts -


  1. What Constitutes a Privileged User in Active Directory

  2. How to Correctly Audit Privileged Users/Access in Active Directory

  3. How to Render Mimikatz DCSync Useless in an Active Directory Environment

  4. How to Easily Identify and Thwart Sneaky Persistence in Active Directory

  5. How to Easily Solve The Difficult Problem of Active Directory Botnets

  6. The World's Top Active Directory Permissions Analysis Tools (and Why They're Mostly Useless)

  7. The Paramount Need to Lockdown Access Privileges in Active Directory

  8. How to Attain and Maintain Least Privileged Access (LPA) in Active Directory

  9. How to Securely Delegate and Correctly Audit Administrative Access in Active Directory

  10. How to Easily Secure Active Directory and Operate a Bulletproof Active Directory Deployment

You see, each one of these Active Directory security focused objectives can be easily accomplished, but and in order to do so, what is required is the capability to accurately audit effective access in Active Directory. Sadly, let alone possessing this paramount cyber security capability, Microsoft doesn't even seem to have a clue about it.

Each one of these posts is absolutely essential for organizational cyber security worldwide, and if you know of even one other entity (e.g. individual, company etc.) on the planet that can help the world address each one of these today, do let me know.

So, over the next few days, I'll pen the above, and you'll be able to access them at the Active Directory Security Blog.

Until then, you may want to go through each one of the 20 days of posts that I've already shared there, as well as review this.



In fact, this cannot wait, so let us begin with the "actual" insight on Active Directory ACLs that all organizations worldwide must have today -


Together, we can help adequately secure and defend organizations worldwide and deny perpetrators the opportunities and avenues they seek to compromise our foundational Active Directory deployments, because we must and because we can.


Best wishes,
Sanjay

CEO, Paramount Defenses

Formerly Program Manager,
Active Directory Security,
Microsoft Corporation


PS: Microsoft, you're welcome. Also, I don't need anything from you, except a Thank you note.

August 25, 2017

Teaching the $ 550 Billion Microsoft Corp about Active Directory Security

Folks,

As some of you may know, over the past few weeks, I have been publicly taking the $ 550 Billion Microsoft (Nasdaq: MSFT) to Active Directory Security School (see PS3 below) because today global security literally depends on Active Directory Security.


In case you're wondering why, here's why -



The Importance of Active Directory Security

From the White House to the British Houses of Parliament, and from Microsoft to the Fortune 1000, at the very foundation of IT, identity and access management, and cyber security at over 85% of all organizations worldwide today lies Active Directory.


In other words, the foundational security of thousands of government and business organizations depends on Active Directory.

To paint a picture - Governments, Militaries, Law Enforcement Agencies, Banks, Stock Exchanges, Energy Suppliers, Defense Contractors, Hospitals, Airlines, Airports, Hotels, Oil and Gas Companies, Internet, Tech and Cyber Security Companies, Manufacturing Companies, Pharmaceutical Companies, Retail Giants ... <the list is long> all run on Active Directory.




Operating in the Dark

Given my background, experience and whatever little I know about the subject, I have reason to believe that most organizations worldwide that operate on Active Directory are operating in the dark today, and have absolutely no idea as to exactly who has what level of privileged access in their foundational Active Directory!


Further, because over the last decade, almost 10,000 organizations from across 150+ countries worldwide have knocked at our doors unsolicited, we know exactly how much these organizations know about Active Directory Security, and we're shocked to know that 99% of them don't even know what "Active Directory Effective Permissions" are, and upon giving this due thought, we have arrived at the conclusion that the world's complete ignorance on this most paramount aspect of organizational cyber security can be attributed to the fact that Microsoft has likely not even once educated its customers about its importance!




Let There Be Light

So, I made an executive decision that we need to educate the $ 550 Billion Microsoft Corp about the paramount importance of "Active Directory Effective Permissions", so that they can in turn educate the thousands of vital business and government organizations at whose very foundation lies Active Directory about its sheer and cardinal importance.


Make no mistake about it - no organization that operates on Microsoft Active Directory today can be adequately secured without possessing the ability to determine effective permissions on the thousands of building blocks of cyber security (i.e. thousands of domain user accounts, computer accounts, security groups and policies) that reside in its Active Directory. Its really that simple.




A 1000 Cyber Security Companies!

Speaking of which, although there are supposedly over a 1000 cyber security companies in the world (, and incidentally at their very foundation too lies Microsoft Active Directory)  not a single one of them has the ability, the expertise or even a single solution to help the world accurately determine "effective permissions"  in Active Directory. Not a single one of them!


Well, except ONE.

Best wishes,
Sanjay


PS: If you can find even ONE cyber security company in the world that can help the world do this, you let me know.

PS2: Microsoft, before you respond, please know this - I've conquered mountains, and I'm likely your best friend.




PS3: To help the world easily follow Active Directory Security School for Microsoft, here are each day's lessons -





August 11, 2017

A Suggestion for President Trump regarding Dealing with North Korea


Dear President Trump,

Hello. As President of Paramount Defenses, I pen this letter most respectfully to you, the President of our United States.

Sir, almost all reasonable people would agree that a bellicose and now nuclear North Korea likely poses a threat not just to the United States but to the whole world, and that this threat must be dealt with. While there are several options, including military options, that you may be considering, I just wanted to say that you may want to give a peaceful resolution to this situation a reasonable chance (because wars are gruesomely destructive), and perhaps there may be still something that could be done.


Of course, North Korea must make no mistake about one fact - it must unequivocally understand that if it attacks the U.S. or its territories or allies, the U.S. will have no choice but to act to defend itself, and if it does, it will likely be the end of North Korea.




Speaking of Nuclear Weapons and North Korea

I likely speak on behalf of not just millions of American citizens, but billions of people worldwide when I say that this dangerous "sabre rattling" needs to please stop; we just cannot have a(ny) country threatening the world with the use of Nuclear Weapons.

Nuclear Weapons

We should also make NO mistake about this - This must please stop, and yet we must try and do all we can do to resolve this PEACEFULLY, because wars are gruesomely destructive. It is estimated that should this situation result in a war on the Korean peninsula, millions of people in numerous countries may lose their lives and/or be severely impacted.

If I might add, in today's civilized world, no one person in the world, whether it be the leader of any country (whether it be North Korea, Iran, China, Russia, USA, etc.) or entity should be able to endanger the lives of all 7,000,000,000+ people on Earth.

Speaking of peaceful efforts, allow me to voice one unsolicited suggestion, which involves a country that may likely have, over the years, whether unintentionally or otherwise, played^ a (not so small) role in helping North Korea get where it is today, and they now ought to do everything they can to help resolve this situation peacefully, and that one country is China.

 [ ^ Watch this 6 min video - "China is North Korea's largest trading partner and has pushed hard for the livelihood exemptions" , "Sanctions will only be as effective as Beijing wants them to be" , "Regime survival is exactly what China actually wants to see"]




Where Does China Stand on This?

Sir, as of Aug 11, 17, you've certainly tried to have China resolve this problem. However, it does not seem to (yet) have worked.


As of this morning, according to the Global Times newspaper, which although is not an official mouthpiece of the Communist Party, does according to experts most likely reflect government policy, China is likely okay with an armed conflict in the region.

I quote from here -
"Beijing is not able to persuade Washington or Pyongyang to back down at this time. It needs to make clear its stance to all sides and make them understand that when their actions jeopardize China's interests, China will respond with a firm hand."
"China should also make clear that if North Korea launches missiles that threaten U.S. soil first and the U.S. retaliates, China will stay neutral. If the U.S. and South Korea carry out strikes and try to overthrow the North Korean regime and change the political pattern of the Korean peninsula, China will prevent them from doing so."

In other words, by not being against it, China is apparently tacitly okay with an armed conflict in the region. That's concerning.

Today, no country in the world should be okay with any such conflict, especially one involving countries with Nuclear Weapons.

China needs to realize that now is the time to respond to North Korea with a firm hand (; lest it might be too late & cost a 100x.)

China may need to unequivocally understand that this isn't just about a regional conflict or stability in one specific region of the world, but that this could result in the use of Nuclear Weapons and that could potentially dangerously impact the entire world.





The Suggestion - Having China Do More

In reality, as its largest trading partner, China does likely have a substantial amount of influence on North Korea, which is also why most sanctions imposed on North Korea by the U.N. thus far may have only been as effective as China wanted them to be.

Thus, perhaps, all countries in the world that desire peace, led by the U.S., should earnestly communicate to China that unless China does more to help, the world may have no choice left but to begin to look into potentially unfair Chinese trade practices and consider* (even if temporarily) substantially reducing their imports from China (i.e. the import of goods Made in China).


Perhaps, as a consequence, if China realizes that the world may seriously no longer be interested in importing its inexpensive goods, and that it may stand to lose up to a Trillion $ in trade each year, unless it "reins in" North Korea, perhaps it will do more.

(As such, China should be quite concerned about the possibility of any armed conflict in its region as it could impact its people. If concern for the safety of its billion+ people doesn't motivate China, perhaps the potential of a Trillion $ a year of loss, may.)

China may very well understand this today, so they need to flex some serious muscle to help resolve this dangerous situation.





[ A small digression...

An Unintended Impact

Incidentally, this could help kick-start your Made in USA initiative, and perhaps help reduce the trade imbalance with China, and although products for the U.S. consumer may no longer be dirt cheap, it could start bringing back American manufacturing jobs, thus helping your #MAGA slogan.


Speaking of #MAGA, while America is already a great country, its greatness may likely indeed have diminished a bit in light of globalization, and speaking of jobs, perhaps it may help to let the American people know that it is our own companies, i.e. the major companies whose products the American populace consumes, that whether driven by fierce competition and/or a desire to "maximize shareholder value", may have over the years substantially outsourced manufacturing, so and it may be up to the people to consider having (and if they decide, could have) these companies put country/security ahead of maximizing profits.

(It is difficult to walk into a Walmart or a Home Depot anywhere in the U.S. and find any products that are not "Made in China." Obviously, since you Sir, are (supposedly) a Billionaire, I do not expect you to have personally walked into a Walmart or a Home Depot, but in all likelihood a majority all hard-working people living in the U.S. may likely know what I'm talking about.)

Lastly, perhaps we, the American people may also need to realize that it may not likely be possible to simultaneously have both, "dirt-cheap (i.e. super inexpensive) products" and "American manufacturing jobs." Perhaps, if there is a strong desire to bring back manufacturing jobs to the U.S., it may require, even if for a bit, some adjustments as consumers - perhaps consume a little less, but buy quality products that are Made in USA as well as made in all such countries that adhere to fair trade practices.

Here, I should mention that it is also certainly possibly for (a more responsible and fairly competing) China to continue to be a major exporter of goods to the U.S., just as long as the Chinese too engage in manufacturing under fair trade practices, fair employment, regard for the environment, and for human rights, thus making the manufacturing playing-field level for all nations.

Alternatively, in lieu of having thousands of companies bring back manufacturing jobs to America, perhaps we could make solid results-driven investments towards helping our workforce acquire skills in those fields and industries that play a substantial role in contributing to America's exports, in effect helping millions of our people find suitable, respectable and gainful employment, as well as contributing to an increase in American exports, which too will have the effect of improving uneven trade deficits.

Speaking of Made in USA, perhaps the best way for you Sir, to demonstrate your commitment and seriousness of purpose to #MAGA, may likely be to lead by example and have all products made by the Trump Organization be made here in USA.

... end of digression.]





In Summary

The World should stand united on one front - regarding threats involving use of Nuclear Weapons, there must be zero tolerance.


As for North Korea, it must make no mistake about one fact - it must unequivocally understand that if it attacks the U.S. or its territories or allies, the U.S. will have no choice but to act to defend itself, and if it does, it will likely be the end of North Korea.

The Chinese too must understand that any military conflict in their region, especially one potentially involving the use of even a single nuclear weapon, and its fallout, could endanger not just all the countries in the Korean Peninsula, but also likely threaten and perhaps possibly jeopardize the very existence of Earth, and the last I checked, a billion Chinese people too, live on Earth.

If a millennia of history haven't taught us about the horrors and savagery that military conflicts and wars entail, and if a millennia of progress hasn't made us all realize that we all need to peacefully co-exist, then while we may have made material progress, what have we truly learnt?

Instead of predominantly pursuing profits, world-domination and egos, we should (all) instead be first pursuing peace, love and harmony, improving life for everyone, and cherishing and saving our precious planet (because in the Universe, its all we have.)

Most respectfully,
Sanjay


PS: I write neither as a Republican nor a Democrat, merely as a caring citizen, and not just as a U.S. citizen, but as a peace-loving global citizen, i.e. just one of 7,000,000,000+ people that live in 150+ countries worldwide who believe in living in Peace.


*A Note to China: We respect almost everyone, including your great nation, we mean no disrespect whatsoever, and like you we believe in fair trade, including with your nation, but far more importantly, we also value and believe in peaceful co-existence (as should you), so if the suggestion made above seems a tad extreme, please consider that it is only made in light of far more extreme circumstances i.e. a belligerent North Korea threatening (in effect, not only) the U.S. (but global security) with WMDs.

You ought to ask yourselves if you're really doing everything you can to diffuse this incredibly reckless and dangerous situation; should this result in an armed conflict in your region, your great country and its people may very likely be substantially impacted.

This is not the time for any party to play "Chess." This is the time for all countries to help prevent a potentially nuclear conflict.

July 10, 2017

A Letter to President Donald Trump regarding Global and Cyber Security

Dear President Trump,

Hello. As President of Paramount Defenses, I pen this letter most respectfully to you, the President of our Great United States.

First off, I should mention that I write neither as a Republican, nor as a Democrat, but as a fellow patriotic American citizen and a cyber security specialist, because I care, and that my desire to do so publicly is inspired by how much you Sir share publicly, and that this most respectful letter is in light of your tweet about discussing the creation of a Cyber Security Unit with Russia.

I'll do my best to keep this VERY simple.



Top-5 Global Security Risks

As President of the United States, you're likely aware of the Top-5 risks to not just America, but to the entire world today -


1. The Risk of the Use of a WMD / Nuclear War
2. The Risk of Earth's Demise, posed by Climate Change
3. The Risk of Terrorism, posed by Terror Groups Worldwide
4. The Risk of the Decline of American Leadership in the World
5. The Risk of Swift and Colossal Damage, posed by Cyber Threats

I am by no means an expert on global security, but common sense suggest that risks 1 and 2 above would be catastrophic to all of mankind, risk 3 could pose a serious threat to life and property, and that risk 4 could increase the likelihood of risks 1, 2 & 3.

As for risk 5, I do happen to know one vital area of cyber security decently well, so I'll share just a few thoughts about it, but first, I did want to take a moment to talk about risk 4 because it potentially impacts the lives of 7,000,000,000+ people worldwide.




The Importance of American Leadership

Mr. Trump, as President of the United States, you are the most powerful and influential person in the world, and most people would take such GREAT responsibility VERY seriously, since their actions and decisions could save or destroy the world.


Sir, the elections are over. You won. You are the President of the United States, and it is time to let the talking be, and start working to make America great again. This isn't reality TV, this is real life, and its a billion times more significant and serious.

If I were the President of the United States, and I deeply cared about making America great again, I likely wouldn't have a moment to watch TV, Tweet or Golf. I'd be working harder than the hardest American to make America greater and safer.

(If I may momentarily digress. speaking of making America great again, while there likely may certainly be much to be done to restore its greatness, we owe it to our future generations to do so without polluting or endangering our precious environment.)

Today more than ever, we live in a precarious, highly-connected and inter-dependent world, and the world needs strong, mature and steady American leadership to amicably address so many important and complicated issues, such as those listed above.

Speaking of which, I'd like to share a few thoughts on risk 5, the risk of swift and colossal damage posed by Cyber Threats, but before I do so, again, I'd request you to please take a few moments to comprehend the profound importance, seriousness and significance of both, the position bestowed upon you by the American people, as well as (of) the challenges that you, Sir, today have the unique privilege and responsibility of addressing for both America and the world that America is inextricably a part of.

[ Hopefully you see that the reality is that since America is inextricably a part of the world, what happens out in the world could impact us substantially, so to make America great(er and safer) again, we must maintain American leadership in the world. ]





The Cyber Risk

Mr. President, to put it most simply, Cyber Security is the Achilles' Heel of developed nations today, because over the last few decades, our reliance on computer systems and networks has increased substantially (exponentially), and sadly within them exist many systemic and component specific deficiencies (vulnerabilities) which can be exploited to inflict colossal harm.


(This risk is actually addressable, and what the world needs is a White Knight so we have a trustworthy foundation to operate on, but and until we get there i.e. until the world has such a defensive shield in place to rely on, we all have reality to deal with.)

Consequently, today from our governments to our energy grids, from our defense systems to our transportation systems, and from our banks to our industries (i.e. a nation's business organizations), literally everything is exposed to varying levels of risk.

It is thus hardly surprising that today cyber security is one of the most important challenges the world faces, an assertion best evidenced by the fact that Russia's purported cyber interference in the 2016 American elections, remains a contentious issue.


Speaking of which, while the U.S and in fact all countries and, ideally all business organizations, should certainly bolster their cyber defenses, establishing a Cyber Security Unit with the Russians might NOT be such a good idea, as also voiced by 1, 23.

By the way, those who truly understand cyber security know that there is no such thing as an "impenetrable cyber security unit".

A quick digression. Yes, indeed the Russians are very good at cyber security and likely at hacking, and they're persistent, but they're not the only ones out there trying to hack our agencies and companies, and they don't always succeed. But, I digress.


Mr. President, you may likely already have some of the world's best inputs and advice when it comes to cyber security, so I'd just like to share paramount cyber security insight with you - Trillion-Dollar Cyber Security Insight for President Donald Trump.


Mr. President, as I put my pen down, I'll only add that of the risks listed above, in the near-term, the Cyber Risk may be 2nd only to the Nuclear Risk, because its realistic probability of occurrence is substantially higher, and its potential for damage, colossal.


Mr. Trump, you have a historic opportunity to SERVE the American People, and define your legacy - its yours to embrace or squander.

Respectfully,
Sanjay.

January 20, 2017

Trillion-Dollar Cyber Security Insight for President Donald Trump

Dear Mr. Trump,

Hello. I'm Sanjay, President of Paramount Defenses. I just wanted to congratulate you on your historic win, wish you success, as did President Obama, and share VALUABLE cyber security insight that could be VITAL to your administration's success.

Before I get to it, I should mention that I write neither as a Republican, nor as a Democrat, but as a fellow patriotic U.S. citizen and a cyber security professional, and that my desire to do so publicly has been inspired by how much you Sir share publicly. Given the sheer impact of our important work across America and the world today, we are a 100% non-partisan organization.

One quick vital point - regarding all the talk of Russian hacking to influence the U.S. election, while Russia and possibly others may certainly have tried to influence it, professionally speaking i.e. as a cyber security practioner, in the grand scheme of things, it matters not as to who is trying to hack us, as much as it does that we protect ourselves from being hacked, so from that angle you're likely right that the DNC should have adequately defended itself. You see, once an entity is hacked, at that very moment the damage is done, because their data is now in someone else's hands, and the entity no longer has any control over what the perpetrators do with it. In fairness, one should also add that if indeed Russia did hack the RNC as well, but chose not to divulge their data, then reasonably speaking, that would have amounted to what is being called "an attempt to influence an election."


That said, Mr. Trump, hopefully you'll agree that given our sheer reliance and dependence on computers and technology, the success of your Presidency and your administration will GREATLY depend on the cyber security of our government agencies.

Attribution: Mr.. Trump's photo: Michael Vadon >

In that regard, I thought you should know that at the very foundation of cyber security of our entire U.S. Government (i.e. 600+ federal agencies) lies a single technology, Microsoft Active Directory, the cyber defense of which is paramount to our security.

You may or may not know this yet, but the White House, the U.S. Capitol, all our intelligence agencies, and virtually all our departments (e.g. Defense, State, Justice, Energy, Labor, Interior, Veterans Affairs etc.) all operate on Active Directory.

By the way, I must mention that none of this is classified information. This is all public knowledge. I just happen to know it first hand because I'm former Microsoft Program Manager for Active Directory Security, i.e. a "deep in the trenches" technical guy who possibly knows more about Active Directory security than most people on the planet. (I also happen to be an innovative American entrepreneur who built possibly the world's most relevant and important cyber security company, from the ground up.)

In fact, Active Directory is at the very foundation of cyber security of 85+% of all government and business organizations world-wide (The Americas, Europe, Asia, etc.) including at the foundation of virtually all of the tech companies whose CEOs recently visited you i.e. Microsoft, Amazon, Alphabet, IBM, Intel, Facebook, Tesla etc., as well as a little cyber company called Palantir.

It is very likely that thousands of business and government organizations in Russia too might be operating on Active Directory.

Sir, in all likelihood, the Trump Organization may also be operating on Active Directory. (Your IT folks could verify that for you.)


Mr. Trump, our cyber intelligence indicates that the foundational Active Directory deployments of most organizations worldwide may currently be exposed to an alarmingly vast attack surface, and thus may possibly be rather easily compromisable today.

The specific cyber security risk that most of them are all likely exposed to today is succinctly described in The Paramount Brief -


Password (case-sensitive): AreWeReallySecure?


If you're short on time, here's a very brief summary -
In every network powered by Active Directory, all administrative accounts i.e. the accounts of the individuals that possess the "Keys to the Kingdom" lie within Active Directory. It is a well known fact that if a perpetrator can compromise ANY one of these accounts, he/she could easily access and control everything. Thus, in every organization, ideally the number of such powerful accounts must be at an absolute bare minimum.
Unfortunately, in most organizations today, not only are there a HUGE number of privileged user accounts in Active Directory, NO ONE really knows exactly who they are and what power they possess. In other words, most organizations seem to be operating in the proverbial dark, & if breached, could likely be compromised in minutes.
In essence, a huge, unknown number of highly prized privileged accounts in Active Directory constitute a vast attack surface, and the compromise of any one of them would be tantamount to a system-wide compromise. 

In our professional opinion, this poses a major cyber security risk globally, especially considering the statistics, i.e. 100% of all major recently cyber security breaches involved the compromise of a single (i.e. just 1) Active Directory privileged user account.

From our side, we can certainly (and uniquely) help organizations worldwide precisely identify and reduce their attack surface, as well as empower them to mitigate this serious risk, swiftly and cost-efficiently, but we do need them to understand it first.


I must also mention with due respect to the likes of Peter Thiel, Alex Karp, Ted Schlein & others, I doubt they're familiar with this specific risk or understand the depth of its magnitude, because this is one of those you have to be "deep in the trenches" to get.

Speaking of which, in 2016, we had directly informed the CEOs of most of the world's Top 200 companies (including most of the tech CEOs that came and met you at the Trump Tower), as well as all appropriate officials at most federal and state agencies about this risk to the foundational Active Directory deployments of their organizations; they all received The Paramount Brief.

Our intelligence further indicates that as a result, many of these organizations started to look at the security of their foundational Active Directory deployments for the first time ever. While some may have started bolstering their cyber defenses, sadly, many of these organizations likely continue to remain vulnerable, especially considering how easy it is to compromise them today.

For instance, if an intruder could breach their network (and Microsoft suggests that organizations assume breach ) in many cases, he/she could just deploy Mimikatz DCSync to instantly 0wn them. (Alex/Peter should be able to explain this to you.)

Fortunately the solutions required to swiftly, effectively and cost-effectively help all impacted organizations mitigate this critical risk exist today (e.g. 1,2). However, we're finding that many organizations do not even seem to know about this risk.

We worry that unless certain basic and fundamental cyber security measures are enacted quickly, many of our government and business organizations, as well as those of our allies worldwide, will likely remain vulnerable to cyber attacks in the near future.

From our side, we're doing what we can to educate and safeguard organizations worldwide, but much more needs to be done, and quickly so. Its in that regard that your intentions give many of us in cyber security, as well as the American people, hope...



Making America Great(er and Safer) Again

In addition to making America greater, we must also make (not only) America (but also our allies) safer, not only from physical threats but also from cyber threats. In fact, given our HUGE reliance on technology, and considering how easy it is to launch a cyber attack, the cyber threat may pose a far greater threat to our national security and prosperity than do physical threats.

I've read that it is your intention to appoint a team to combat cyber attacks within 90 days of taking office. That (in your parlance) sounds WONDERFUL. I commend you for this initiative. Indeed, it is imperative and in fact paramount that we do everything we can to safeguard and adequately defend our government and business organizations from being taken out by cyber attacks.


If I had to offer some unsolicited advice, I'd suggest that one of the most important measures one could enact is Attack Surface Reduction. Simply put, the smaller one's attack surface is, the better one's chances of being able to adequately defend it.

For instance, it is so much easier to protect a building that only has one entrance than it is to protect one that has 20 entrances, and where only a few security guards have the master keys to the building, than one wherein who knows how many have them.

That's why, considering the statistics i.e. the fact that 100% of all major recent cyber security breaches involved the compromise of a single (i.e. just 1) Active Directory privileged user account, reducing the number of users that have privileged access within Active Directory to a bare minimum, then adequately protecting them, must be one of the top priorities for all organizations.

Sir, in short, provably secure (least-privileged access adherent) foundational Active Directory deployments at all our federal government agencies and at all business organizations they rely on, are likely going to be vital to your administration's success.

(As you'll likely agree, this isn't rocket science; it's common sense. If a government agency is compromised (e.g. OPM Breach), assets or initiatives it might be working on could be in jeopardy. Similarly, if a business organization (e.g. a Defense Contractor, a Builder etc.) that the government relies on for its various initiatives is compromised, those initiatives could be in jeopardy.)


Thank you, and Best Wishes

In closing, thank you for your time, congrats on your bigly win and good luck as you get ready to serve the American people.

The American people have entrusted you with the great responsibility of leading our great nation, as well as the might of American power, and they're looking to you to make their lives better and to make America greater and safer again.

In God We Trust, so wish you God Speed in your efforts to fulfill your promises to make America great(er and safer) again.

Most Respectfully,
Sanjay


PS: At Paramount Defenses, because we understand the paramount importance of cyber security to the business and national security interests of the United States and those of our allies, we care deeply about cyber security and we take it very seriously.